Type 2 diabetes
Diabetes happens to be a disease that affects the way the body uses glucose, the main type of sugar in the blood. The diabetes means that blood glucose, described blood sugar also is very high. With type 2 diabetes, the most common, the body does not produce or does not use insulin well. Insulin happens to be a hormone that assists glucose enter cells for energy. Without insulin there is in excess of glucose in the blood. Over time, a high level of glucose in the blood can be the reason of serious problems in the eyes, heart, nerves, kidneys,, teeth and gums.
You have a higher risk of having type 2 diabetes if you are an older adult, are obese, have a family history of diabetes or do not exercise. Suffering from prediabetes also increases that risk. People who have prediabetes have a higher than normal sugar level but not enough to be considered diabetic. If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, you may delay or prevent its development by making changes in your standard of living.
Type 2 diabetes symptoms come into sight gradually. Some people don't even notice them. May include
- Frequent urination
- Being very thirsty
- Lose weight without trying
- Feeling hungry or tired
- Blurry vision
- Having wounds that heal slowly
A blood test can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1c, can also check how you are managing your diabetes. Many people control their diabetes throughout physical activity, healthy eating, and test of your blood glucose.
When to consult the doctor
Check with your doctor if you notice any of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin. The exact reason why this happens is unknown, although there appear to be genetic and environmental factors, such as overweight and inactivity, that contribute to its appearance.
How insulin works
- Insulin is a hormone that forms in the gland located behind and under the stomach (the pancreas).\
- It exudes insulin hooked on the bloodstream.
- Insulin circulates and allows sugar to enter the cells.
- Insulin reduces the amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
As the blood sugar level drops, insulin secretion from the pancreas decreases.
The function of glucose
- It is a kind of sugar, main resource of energy in the cells which use to make up your muscles and rest of the tissues.
- Glucose happens to come from two main resources: your liver and food.
- The sugar happens to be absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters the cells with the help of insulin.
- The liver generates and stores glucose.
When glucose levels use to be low, like when you have not eaten for a moment, the liver translates stored glycogen keen on glucose for keeping the glucose level in the normal range.
In type 2 diabetes, this process does not work well. Instead of passing into your cells, sugar accumulates in your bloodstream. As blood sugar levels rise, beta cells that make insulin in the pancreas release more insulin, but eventually lose their capacity and cannot make enough insulin to meet the body's demands.
In much less frequent type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys beta cells and leaves the body with little or no insulin.
Features that might boost the type 2 diabetes risk include:
Increasing Weight. Being overweight happens to be a major risk feature for type 2 diabetes. However, you don't have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.
Fat distribution: If you store fat mainly in the abdomen, you have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store it anywhere else, such as the hips and thighs. The risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes increases if you are a man with 40 inches (101.6 cm) of waist circumference or a woman with more than 35 inches (88.9 cm) of waist.
Inactivity. The less active you are, the more risk you will have type 2 diabetes. Physical activity assists you manage your weight, use glucose like energy and constructs your cells responsive to insulin additionally.
Family background. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if your father, mother or brother have it.
Race. Although it is not clear why, people of certain races, such as African-American, Hispanic, Indian-American and Asian-American, are at a higher risk of having type 2 diabetes than white people.
Age. Your risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after your 45th birthday. This may probably be because people, as they age, be inclined to exercise less, losing muscle mass and increase weight. But type 2 diabetes happens to be also increasing significantly among children, adolescents and young adults.
Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a disorder in which your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but it is not high enough to classify it as diabetes. If left untreated, prediabetes usually progresses to type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes. If you had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant, your risk of type 2 diabetes increases.
Polycystic ovary syndrome. For women, polycystic ovary syndrome (an ordinary disease distinguished by unbalanced menstrual periods, obesity and excessive hair growth) boosts the risk of diabetes.
Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck. This condition often indicates insulin resistance.
It can be very easy to ignore type 2 diabetes, especially in the early stages, when you feel well. But diabetes use to affect many of the main organs, such as the blood vessels, heart, nerves, kidneys and eyes. If you control the blood sugar level, you can help avoid these complications.
While long-term complications of diabetes can develop gradually, they can ultimately lead to loss of abilities or even death.
The following are some of the potential complications of diabetes:
Heart and circulatory diseases. Diabetes greatly increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and narrowing of the blood vessels (atherosclerosis).
Nerve injury (neuropathy). Too much sugar can cause numbness, tingling, pain or burning, which more often than not starts at the tips of the hands or toes and gradually extends upward. Over time, you may lose sensation in the affected limbs.
Damage to the nerves that control digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. In men, erectile dysfunction can be a problem.
Kidney damage. Type 2 Diabetes able to source kidney malfunction or a permanent end-stage kidney ailment sometimes, which may require dialysis or kidney transplants.
Eye damage. Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma, and can damage the blood vessels of the retina and possibly cause blindness.
Slow healing. If left untreated, cuts and swellings can lead to grave infections that may not heal properly. Rigorous damage might require elimination of the toe, leg or foot.
Impaired hearing. Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.
Skin diseases. Diabetes can make you more prone to skin problems, such as bacterial and fungal infections.
Sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity may be the main contributing factor to both diseases. Treating sleep apnea can lower your blood pressure and make you feel more rested, but it's unclear if it helps improve blood sugar control.
Alzheimer disease. Type 2 diabetes seems to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, although it is not clear why. The more poor the blood sugar control, the greater the risk.
How is type 2 diabetes diagnosed?
Doctors can tell if a person has diabetes 2 by doing a blood test that measures blood glucose levels. Although a child or adolescent does not have any of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, doctors can send a blood glucose test to those patients who are more likely to develop this disease, such as those who are overweight.
Sometimes doctors may request another blood test, called a glycosylated hemoglobin test (hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c) to evaluate diabetes in children at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This test shows how blood levels have been controlled. blood sugar during the last months.
If the doctor suspects that a child or adolescent suffers from diabetes or if this diagnosis is confirmed, he will most likely send it to a pediatric endocrinologist, a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the endocrine system, (such as diabetes and growth problems) in children.
Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent type 2 diabetes, even if you have a family history of diabetes. If you have already received a diagnosis of diabetes, prefer healthy lifestyle alternatives to avoid complications. If you have prediabetes, lifestyle changes can delay or stop the progression to diabetes.
A healthy lifestyle includes:
Eating healthy food. Choose foods low in fat, high in fiber, and low in calories. Concentrate on vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
Do physical activity. Aim for at least 30 to 60 minutes of moderate physical activity (or 15 to 30 minutes of intense aerobic activity) on most days. Take a quick daily walk. Ride a bike. Swim some long in the pool. If you cannot do a long session of exercises, divide it into sessions throughout the day.
Losing weight. If you are overweight, losing 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can reduce the risk of diabetes. To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent changes in your eating and exercise habits. Get motivated by remembering the benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and greater self-esteem.
Avoid being sedentary for prolonged periods. Being still for long periods may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Try to get up every 30 minutes and move for at least a few minutes.
Food and drinks you should avoid
There are certain foods and drinks that you should limit or avoid altogether, including:
- Foods that contain a lot of saturated or trans fats
- Viscera, like beef liver
- Processed meats
- Margarine and butter
- Baked goods like white bread, bagels
- Processed snacks
- Sugary drinks, including fruit juices
- High fat dairy products
- Pasta or white rice
It is also recommended that you omit foods with a lot of salt and fried. Check this list of other foods and drinks that you should avoid if you have diabetes.
Foods you should choose
Healthy carbohydrates can provide you with fiber. The options include:
- Whole fruits
- Starchy vegetables
- Legumes, such as beans
- Whole grains like oats or quinoa
- Sweet potato
Foods with heart-fit omega-3 fatty acids comprise:
- Flax seeds
You can get healthy polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats from various foods, including:
- Oils, such as canola oil, olive oil, and peanut oil
- Walnuts, such as almonds, pecans and Castile nuts
While these healthy fat options are good for you, they are also high in calories. The key is moderation. Opting for low-fat dairy products will also keep your fat intake under control. Discover other foods suitable for people with diabetes, from cinnamon to shirataki noodles.
What are the latest advances in the treatment of type 2 diabetes?
Doctors and researchers are developing new equipment and treatments to help children cope with the special problems of growing up with diabetes.
Some children and adolescents already use devices that make blood glucose measurement and insulin injections easier and more effective.
Researchers are also testing ways to stop diabetes before it develops. For example, scientists are studying whether diabetes can be prevented in those who may have inherited a high risk of developing this disease.
Living with diabetes is a challenge for anyone, but young children and teenagers often have to face special issues. Young children may not understand why they need blood tests or medications. They may be scared, angry and refuse to cooperate.
Having a child with diabetes may seem overwhelming sometimes, but you are not alone. If you have questions or questions, contact your child's diabetes care team; they can help you in purely medical matters, and they are also there to support and help you and your child.
If you or anyone you care about is suffering from diabetes you must watch this video now!
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